School of Public Policy                 4301 Massachusetts Ave., N.W.

        University of Maryland                  Washington, D.C. 20016

        College Park, Md. 20742             Ph: 202 686 0789

        Ph: 301 405 6367

        Fax: 301 403 4675


        web site:



     Ph.D., Economics, 1980, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

     M. Phil., Economics, 1971, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

     B.A. (hons), 1966, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia


Current Activities

            Co-PI for DHS-funded study “Transnational Criminal Organizations, Terrorists and Illicit Radiological/Nuclear (RN) Materials: Exploring a Central American Nexus” 10/10-9/11 [$455,000]

            Founding president of the International Society of Drug Policy [3/07-]

            Chair, National Research Council Committee on the effects of increased border enforcement [4/2010-]

            Technical advisor to Drug Policy Monitoring Program, National Drug and Alcohol Research Center [Australia] 2004-

            Consulting: IMF, World Bank


Professional Experience



Professor, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, August 1993-present

Secondary appointment as professor in the Department of Criminology and             Criminal Justice.


Director, Program on the Economics of Crime and Justice Policy


Senior Economist, RAND Corporation



Editor of Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management) 1999-2004


Senior Fellow, RAND, October 2000-September 2001

Visiting Fellow, Urban Institute, January 2000-July 2001


Co-Director, Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1989-1993.


Principal founder and director of foundation-supported multi-disciplinary research program covering entire range of drug policy issues from epidemiology to crop eradication.  I directed the activities of approximately 12 professionals; assisted in development of proposals and design of research, monitor progress, review manuscripts.  I also made numerous presentations to policy audiences and dealt with a national advisory board. In addition I directed a major study of drug policies in Western Europe.

Senior Economist, the RAND Corporation, 1981-1993


Principal Investigator and Co-P.I. on wide range of projects in areas of criminal and civil justice.  Studies include: the consequences of changes in corporate product liability doctrine; analysis of the impact of increased drug interdiction; examination of the sources and consequences of racketeering in legitimate industries.


Senior Research Fellow, Center for Research on Institutions and Social Policy, 1979-1981

Research Fellow, Policy Sciences Center, 1976-1979

Research Director, Commission on the Review of the National Policy toward Gambling, 1974-976.          

Research Associate, Twentieth Century Fund, 1972-1974

Teaching Fellow and Temporary Lecturer, School of Economics, University of New South        Wales, 1966-1968



Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate (2010) (Room, R., Fischer, B., Hall, W., Lenton, S. and P. Reuter) Oxford University Press [232 pages]

Drug Policy and the Public Good.(2010) Babor, T., Caulkins, J., Edwards, G., Foxcroft, D., Humphreys, K., Medina Mora, M., Obot, I., Rehm,J., Reuter, P., Room, R., Rossow, I. and J. Strang.  Oxford University Press. [324 pages] [winner of the British Medical Association prize for best public health book,  2010]

The World Heroin Market: Can Supply be Cut?( 2009) Paoli, L., Greenfield, V. and Reuter, Oxford University Press  [360 pages]

Chasing Dirty Money: Progress in Controling Money Laundering Truman, E. and Reuter, Institute for International Economics (2004) [209 pages]

            Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Places, Times and Vices (MacCoun, R. and Reuter) Cambridge University Press (2001) [476 pages]    

Disorganized Crime:  The Economics of the Visible Hand , Cambridge, Mass.:  M.I.T. Press, 1983 (winner of Leslie Wilkins Award for outstanding study in criminology and criminal justice, 1984). [226 pages]




Monographs (major)

            [all externally reviewed]


An Assessment of Illiict Drug Policy in Australia (1985-2010): Themes and Trends Ritter, A., Lancaster, K., Gretch K. and Reuter; Drug Policy Modeling Program, Monograph #21, Sydney, Australia

Understanding the Demand for Drugs (Reuter, editor) National Academy of Sciences Press (2010) Report of a workshop chaired by Reuter

      Reducing Drug Trafficking Revenues and Violence in Mexico: Would Legalizing Marijuana in California Help? (2010) Kilmer, B., Caulkins,J. P., Bond, B. and Reuter

RAND Occasional Paper

Altered State?  Assessing marijuana legalization could affect marijuana consumption and public budgets in California [Kilmer, B., Caulkins, J., Pacula R., MacCoun, R. and Reuter] (2010) RAND Occasional Paper    

  Assessing the Operations of the Global Illicit Drug Markets, 1998-2007 Reuter and F. Trautmann (editors) Report for the European Commission.  (2009) [600 pages] Main Report authored by Reuter, as are two of the seven appendices.

 Assessment of Swiss Drug Policy 1998-2007 (Reuter with D. Schnoz) Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (2009)


An Analysis of UK Drug Policy (Reuter and A. Stevens) U.K. Drug Policy Commission 2007 [108 pages]

            An Analytic Assessment of U.S. Drug Policy (D. Boyum & P. Reuter) American Enterprise Institute (2005)  [125 pages]

            Money from Crime: A Study of the Economics of Drug Dealing in Washington, D.C.  (Reuter, P., MacCoun, R. and P. Murphy), The RAND Corporation, R-3894-RF, June 1990. [pages xxii, 172]

            Sealing the Borders:  Effects of Increased Military Efforts in Drug Interdiction,  (Reuter, P., Crawford, G. and J. Cave), The RAND Corporation, R-3594-USDP, February 1988. [pages xx, 155]

            Racketeering in Legitimate Industries: A Study in the Economics of Intimidation,  The RAND Corporation, 1987. R-3525-NIJ [pages xiii, 100]

            Designing Safer Products:  Corporate Responses to Product Liability Law and Regulation  (Eads, G. and P. Reuter), The RAND Corporation, R-3022-ICJ, 1984. [pages xvii, 160]


  Articles in Refereed Journals and Law Reviews & Book Chapters (R – refereed journal)

            MacCoun, R. and Reuter (forthcoming) “Assessing Drug Prohibition and its Alternatives: A Guide for Agnostics” Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences

            Reuter and J.Caulkins (forthcoming) “Purity, price and production: Are drug markets different? In de Grauwe and Costa Storti (eds) Illicit Trade and Globalization Cambridge, MA, MIT Press

         Pollack, H., Sevigny, E. and Reuter (in press) “If drug treatment works so well, why are so many drug users incarcerated?” in Cook, Phil, Jens Ludwig, and Justin McCrary  Controlling Crime: Strategies and Trade-offs /NBER Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

          Paoli, Greenfield and Reuter (in press) “Change is Possible: The History of the International Drug Control Regime and Implications for Future Policymaking” Substance Use and Misuse

           Bushway, S. and Reuter (2011) “Deterrence, Economics and the Context of Drug Markets” Criminology and Public Policy Vol 10, Issue 1  pp.183-194

           Reuter, P., Pacula R. and J. Caulkins (2011) “RAND’s Drug Policy Research Center” Addiction 106 253-259 [R]

         “How can US Domestic Drug Policy help Mexico?” in Olson, Shirk and Selee (eds) (2010) Shared Responsibility: US-Mexico Options for Confronting Organized Crime Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars pp.121-140,%20Shirk,%20Selee.pdf

            Caulkins, J. and P. Reuter (2010) “How Drug Enforcement Affects Drug Prices” Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 39 213-271 [R]

             Babor, T., Caulkins, J., Edwards, G., Foxcroft, D., Humphreys, K., Medina Mora, M., Obot, I., Rehm,J., Reuter, P., Room, R., Rossow, I. and J. Strang (2010) “Drug Policy and the Public Good: A Summary of the Book” Addiction 105(7) 1137-45

Reuter (2010)“Can Production and Trafficking of Illicit Drugs be Reduced or Only Shifted?” pp. 95-134 in Keefer, P. and N. Loayza (eds) Innocent Bystanders: Developing Countries and the War on Drugs Washington, DC World Bank/Palgrave MacMillan                                                                                                                  

           Greenfield, V., Paoli, L., P. Reuter (2009)Is Medicinal Opium Production

Afghanistan’s Answer? Lessons from India and the World Market” Journal of Drug Policy Analysis Issue 2, Article 1, pp.1-17 [R]

MacCoun, R., Pacula, R., Chiriqi, J., Harrison, K and P. Reuter (2009) "Do Citizens Know Whether Their State Has Decriminalized Marijuana? Assessing the Perceptual Component of Deterrence Theory." Review of Law and Economics Vol. 5, Issue 1, Article 5 [R]

Reuter (2009) “Systemic Violence in Drug Markets” Crime, Law and Social Change 52(3) 275-289

            Reuter (2009) “Ten years after UNGASS: assessing drug problems, policies and reform proposals” Addiction 104 510-517 [R]

            Caulkins, J. and Reuter (2009) “Towards a harm reduction approach to enforcement” Safer Communities 9(1) 9-24

Paoli, L., Greenfield, V., Charles, M. and Reuter (2009) “India: The World’s Third Kargest Illicit Opium Producer?” Addiction 104 (3) 347-354 [R]

Levi, M. and Reuter (2009) “Money Laundering” in Tonry, M. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy Oxford University Press

Reuter and A. Stevens (2008) “Assessing U.K. Drug Policy from a Crime Control Perspective” Criminology and Criminal Justice 8(4) 461-482

Bushway, S. and Reuter (2008) “Economists’ Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System” in Tonry, M. (ed.) Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research: Vol 37 389-452 [R]

            Paoli, L. and Reuter (2008) “Drug Trafficking and ethnic minorities in Europe” European Journal of Criminology 5 13-37[R]

            Paoli, L., Rabkov, I, Greenfield, V., Reuter (2007) “Tajikistan: The Rise of a Narco-state” J. Drug Issues  38 (4) 951-978 [R]

Reuter and S. Bushway (2007 ) “Can the crime reduction effects of incapacitation be estimated? J. Quantitaive Criminology 23 259-65 [special issue edited by Reuter and Bushway]

Cook, P. and Reuter (2007) “When is alcohol just another drug?” Addiction 1183-1188 102  [R]       

Pollack, H. and Reuter (2007) “The Implications of Recent Findings on the Link between Cannabis and Psychosis”  Addiction 102 173-176 [R]

Caulkins, J. and Reuter (2006) “Re-orienting Drug Policy” Issues in Science and Technology 23(1)

Levi, M and Reuter (2006) “Money Laundering: A Review of Current Controls and their Consequences” Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research Vol. 34 289-375 R

Pollack, H. & Reuter (2006) “Substance Abuse by Low-Income Mothers and Drug Treatment After Welfare Reform” American J. Public Health [R]

Caulkins, J. & Reuter (2006)  “Illicit Drug Markets and Economic Irregularities” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences pp.1-14 [R]

Reuter (2006) “What drug policies cost: Estimating government drug policy expenditures” Addiction 101 315-322 [R]

Pollack, H. & Reuter (2006) “How Much Can Drug Treatment Reduce National Drug Problems?”Addiction 101 341-347[R]

Caulkins, J., Reuter, P. & L. Taylor (2005) “Can Supply Restrictions Lower Price: Illegal Drugs, Violence and Positional Advantage” Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy [R]

Pacula, R., MacCoun, R. Reuter et al. (2005) “What Does it Mean to Decriminalize Marijuana? A Cross-National Empirical Examination” in Lindgren, B. and M. Grossman (eds.) Substance Use: Individual Behaviors, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Resesarch Vol. 16, Elsevier, Amsterdam pp.347-370

Degenhart, L., Reuter, P., Collins, L. & W. Hall. (2005) “Evaluating Factors Responsible for Australia’s Heroin Shortage” Addiction  100 459-469 [R]

Reuter, P. and J. Caulkins (2004) “Illegal Lemons: Price Dispersion in the Cocaine and Heroin Markets” UN Bulletin on Narcotics LVI 141-165

Reuter, P. (2003) “The Political Economy of Drug Smuggling” in Vellinga (ed.) The Political Economy of the Drug Industry Florida University Press.  Pp.128-147

Reuter, P. & J. Caulkins (2003) “Does Precursor Regulation Reduce Drug Abuse?” Addiction 98 (9), pp.1177-1179. [R]

            MacCoun, R., Kilmer, B. & P. Reuter (2003) “Research on Crime-Drugs Linkage: The Next Generation of Research” in Brounstein and Crossland (eds.) Toward a Drugs and Crime Research Agenda for the 21st Century. National Institute of Justice, pp.65-95. reprinted in Kelly, Margaret (ed.) Readings on Drugs and Society" Pearson 2006

             Caulkins, J., Kleiman, M. & P. Reuter (2003) “Counterterror and Counterdrug Policies:  Comparisons  and Contrasts" in Arnold Howitt and Robyn Pangi, eds., Preparing for Domestic Terrorism MIT Press, pp. 73-93.    [Short version: Kleiman, M., Reuter, P. & Caulkins, J. “The ‘War on Terror’ and the ‘War on Drugs’: A Comparison”) in the Federation of American Scientists Public Interest Report pp.3-5 March/April 2002.]

            Reuter, P. (2003) “Drug Use” in Douglas Besharov (ed.), Family and Child Well-Being After Welfare Reform Transaction Press, New Brunswich, NJ, pp.231-246.


            Reuter, P. & J. Mouzos (2003) “Australian Gun Control; Assessing a Massive Buy-Back of Low Risk Guns” in P. Cook and J. Ludwig (eds.) Researching Gun Violence. Brookings Institution, pp.121-142.


Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (2002) "Heroin Maintenance: Is a US Trial Needed?" in Musto, D. (ed.) One Hundred Years of Heroin.  Auburn House, pp.159-190.


             MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (2002) “The Varieties of Drug Control at the Dawn of the Twenty First Century” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences (issue coedited by Reuter and MacCoun) 582, pp.7-19.


            Reuter, P. & J. Smith-Ready (2002) “Assessing JPAM after 20 years” J. Policy Analysis and Management 21 (3), pp.339-354. [R]


            Bushway, S. & P. Reuter (2002) "Labor Markets and Crime Risk Factors" in Sherman, Farrington, McKenzie and Welsh (eds.) Preventing Crime London, Routledge, Kegan and Paul pp.198-240.  [Also Chapter 6 in Lawrence Sherman et al Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't and What is Promising National Institute of Justice, 1997.]

            Bushway, S. & P. Reuter (2001) "Labor Markets and Crime" in J. Wilson & J. Petersilia (eds.) Crime (2rd edition),  pp.191-224.

            Boyum, D. & P. Reuter (2001) “Reflections on Drug Policy and Social Policy” in Heymann, P. and Brownsberger, W. (eds.) Drug Addiction and Drug Policy: The Struggle to Control Dependence.  Cambridge, Harvard University Press, pp.239-264.


Reuter, P. (2001) "Why does research have so little impact on American drug policy?" Addiction 96 (3), pp.373-376. [R]


MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (2001) "Evaluating alternative cannabis control regimes" British J. of Psychiatry 178, pp.123-128. [R]


Reuter, P. (2001) “The need for dynamic models of drug markets” Bulletin on Narcotics 53, pp.1-10.


Reuter, P. & V. Greenfield (2001) “Measuring global drug markets; how good are the numbers and why should we care about them,” World Economics 2 (4), pp.155-173.


            Reuter, P. (2001) “The Limits of Supply Side Drug Control,” The Milken Institute Review First Quarter, pp.14-23.


            Reuter, P., & J. Roman (2000) “Comments on ‘Crime and Victimization: An Economic Approach” Economia 1 (1), pp.279-288.

Reuter, P. (2000) “Connecting drug policy and research on drug markets” in M. Natarajan and M. Hough (eds.) Illegal Drug Markets: From Research to Policy. Crime Prevention Studies 11, edited by. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp.129-139.

Reuter, P. (2000) "What Can Advocates of Nicotine Replacement Therapies Learn from the Experience in Introducing Methadone Treatment?” in R.G. Ferrence, J. Slade, R. Room, & M.A. Pope (eds.) Nicotine and Public Health. American Public Health Association, pp.275-284.


Reuter, P. (April 1999) “Drug Use Measures: What Are They Really Telling Us?” Nationl Institute of Justice Journal, pp.12-19.


            Caulkins, J. & P. Reuter (1998) “What Can We Learn from Drug Prices?”  J. Drug Issues 28 (3), pp. 593-612. [R]


            Longshore, D., Reuter. P., Derks, J., Grapendaal, M., & P. Ebener (1998) “Drug Policies and Harms: A Conceptual Framework” European Addiction Research 4 (4), pp.172-182. [R]


            MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (1998) “Drug Control” in Michael Tonry (ed.) The Crime and Justice Handbook.  Oxford University Press, pp. 207-238.


            Reuter, P. (1998) “The Export Demand for Latin American Drugs” in E. Joyce & C. Malamud (eds.) Latin America and the the Multi-National Drug Trade.  London, MacMillan, pp.23-45.  [Spanish version printed in Thoumi and Guaqueta (eds.) El rompecabezas de las drogas ilegales en Estados Unidos: Una Vision eclectica Bogota, Colombia, University de los Andes, 1997; pp.171-198.]


            Reuter, P. (1997) “Federal Drug Policy in the United States, 1962-1992: A Brief Interpretive History” in Rihs-Middel, Lewis, Clerc, Gear and Langenick-Cartwright (eds.) The Medical Prescription of Narcotics Friborg: Hogrefe and Huber Verlag, pp.182-188. [Also in French and German translations of the same volume.]


MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (1997) “Interpreting Dutch Cannabis Policy: Reasoning by Analogy in the Drug Legalization Debate” Science 278, pp.47-52. [R]


            Caulkins, J. & P. Reuter (1997) “Setting Goals for Drug Policy: Harm Reduction or Use Reduction?” Addiction 97 (9), pp.1143-1150. [R]


            Satel, S., Reuter, P., Hartley, D., Rosenheck, R. & J. Mintz (1997) “Influence of Retroactive Disability Payment on Recipient Compliance with Substance Abuse Treatment” Psychiatric Services 48 (6), pp.796-799. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1997) “Can We Make Prohibition Work Better? Some Consequences of Avoiding the Ugly,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 141 (3), pp.262-275 [Reprinted in Perspectives on Crime and Justice: 1996-1997 Lecture Series National Institute of Justice, 1997; also Inciardi (ed.) The New American Drug Scene 2000.]


            Koper, C. & P. Reuter (1996) “Suppressing Gun Markets: Insights from Drug Enforcement” Law and Contemporary Problems 59 (1), pp. 119-146. [Reprinted in Fiorentini and Zamagni (eds.) The Economics of Corruption and Illegal Markets, Vol. III Edward Elgar, London, 1999]. [R]


            Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (1996) “Harm Reduction and Social Policy: Should Addicts be Paid?” Drug and Alcohol Review 15 (3), pp.225-230. reprinted in Kelly, Margaret (ed.) Readings on Drugs and Society" Pearson 2006


            Caulkins, J. & P. Reuter (1996) “The Meaning and Utility of Drug Prices” Addiction 91 (9), pp.1261-1264. [R]


            MacCoun, R., Reuter, P., & T. Schelling (1996) “Assessing Alternative Drug Control Regimes” J. Policy Analysis and Management 15 (3), pp. 330-352.  [Reprinted in Lane, Jodi and Joan Petersilia (eds.) "Criminal Justice Policy" Edward Elgar Publishing, UK (1997)]. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1996) “The Mismeasurement of Illegal Drug Markets: The Implications of Its Irrelevance” in Pozo, S. (ed.) The Underground Economy.  Kalamazoo, Mich: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, pp.63-80.


            Gambetta, D. & P. Reuter (1995) "Conspiracy Among the Many: The Mafia in Legitimate Industries"  in Fiorentini, G. and S. Peltzman (eds.) The Economics of Organized Crime Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.116-136. [Reprinted in Fielding, Clarks and Witt (eds.) The Economic Dimensions of Crime.  New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2000]


            Haaga, J. & P. Reuter (1995) "Prevention: The (Lauded) Orphan of Drug Policy"   in R. Coombs & D. Ziedonis (eds.)  Handbook on Drug Abuse Prevention.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Allyn and Bacon, pp.3-17.  [Reprinted (in Spanish) in Boletin IDEA-Prevencion N0. 11, pp.67-92, July/December 1995]


            Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (1995) "Assessing the Legalization Debate" in G. Estievenart (ed.) Drug Policies and Strategies to Combat Drugs. The Treaty on European Union: Framework for a New European Strategy to Combat Drugs.  Amsterdam, Kluwer, pp.39-49.


            Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (1995) “Why Harm Reduction Has Not Influenced US Drug Policy” Tobacco Control  3, Autumn Supplement, pp.S28-32. [R]


            Saner, H., MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (1995) “On the Ubiquity of Drug Selling Among Youthful Offenders, 1985-1991: Age, Period or Cohort Effect?”  J. Quantitative Criminology 11 (4), pp.337-362. [R]


            Reuter, P. & J. Caulkins (1995) “Redefining the Goals of National Drug Policy: Report of a Working Group” American Journal of Public Health 85 (8), pp.1059-1063. [Reprinted in Goldberg, R. (ed.) Taking Sides: Clashing views on Controversial Issues in Drugs and Society (2001).] [R]


            Reuter, P. (1995) “The Decline of the American Mafia” The Public Interest Number 120, pp. 89-99.  [Reprinted in Annual Editions: Criminal Justice Guilford, Conn.; The Dushkin Publishing Group, 1996; also in Trends in Organized Crime 1 (3), Spring 1996; also in Organized Crime (James D. Torr, book editor, San Diego, Ca. Greenhaven Press, 1999.]


            Reuter, P. (1994) "Setting Priorities: Principles for Drug Policy" Chicago Legal Forum, pp.145-173.


            Reuter, P., Ebener & D. McCaffrey (1994) "Patterns of Drug Use" in Douglas Besharov (ed.)  When Drug Addicts Have Children: Reorienting Society's Response. Washington, D.C., American Enterprise Press, pp.3-31.


            Reuter, P. (1994) "A Review of Research on Organized Crime" in Kelly, Chin and Schatzberg (eds.)  Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States  Boulder, Col., Westview Press, pp.91-120.


            Reuter, P. (1993) "The Cartage Industry in New York" in Tonry, Michael and Albert Reiss (eds.)  Beyond the Law: Crime in Complex Organizations. Vol. 18 of Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp.149-202. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1993) "Prevalence Estimation and Policy Formulation"  J. Drug Issues  23 (2), pp.167-184. [R]


            Kennedy, M., Reuter, P., & K. J. Riley (1993) "A Simple Economic Model of Cocaine Production" Mathematical and Computer Modeling 17(2), pp.19-36. [R]


            Caulkins, J., Crawford, G., & P. Reuter (1993) "Simulation of Adaptive Response: A Model of Interdictor-Smuggler Interactions" Mathematical and Computer Modelling 17 (2), pp.37-52. [R]


            MacCoun, R., Saiger, A., Kahan, J. & P. Reuter (1993) "Drug Policies and Problems: The Promise and Pitfalls of Cross- National Comparison" in N. Heather, A. Wodak, E. Nadelmann and P. Ohare (eds.) Pyschoactive Drugs and Harm Reduction: From Faith to Science. Whurr Publishers, London, pp.103-117.


            Reuter, P., Kahan, J. & R. MacCoun (1993) "Drug Problems and Policies: Comparative Perspectives," in C.F. Normand and P. Vaughan (eds.) Europe Without Frontiers:  The Implications for Health.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 309-315.  [Reprinted in Drugwise,  September 1992.]


            Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (1992) "Street Drug Markets in Inner-City Neighborhoods: Matching Policy to Reality" in D. Lyon, J. Steinberg & M. Vaiana (eds.) Urban America.  RAND, Santa Monica, CA, pp. 227-251.


            Reuter, P. (1992) "After the Borders are Sealed: Can Domestic Sources Substitute for Imported Drugs?" in Peter Smith (ed.)  Drug Policy in the Americas.  Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp.163-177.


            Reuter, P. & D. Ronfeldt. (1992) "Quest for Integrity: The Mexican-U.S. Drug Issue in the 1980s" Journal of Interamerican Affairs 34 (3), pp.89-153. [R]


Reuter, P. & R. MacCoun (1992) "Are the Wages of Sin $30 an Hour? Economic Aspects of Street-level Drug Dealing," Crime and Delinquency 38 (4), pp.477-492. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1992) "The Limits and Consequences of U.S. Foreign Drug Control Efforts" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 521, pp. 151-162. [Reprinted in R. Perl (ed.) Drugs & Foreign Policy:  A Critical Review, Westview Press, 1994.]


            Reuter, P. (1992) "Hawks Ascendant:  The Punitive Trend of American Drug Policy," Daedalus 121 (3), pp. 15-52.  [Reprinted in Inciardi, J. and K. McElrath (eds.) The American Drug Scene Los Angeles, Roxbury Publishing Company, 1994.]


            Reuter, P. (1991) "On the Consequences of Toughness," in Lazear, Edward and Melvyn Krauss (eds.)  Searching for Alternatives : Drug Control Policy in the United States, Hoover Press, pp. 138-162.


            Haaga, J. & P. Reuter (1990) "The Limits of the Czar's Ukase:  Drug Policy at the Local Level," Yale Law & Policy Review 8 (1), pp.36-74.


            Hammitt, J., & P. Reuter (1989) "Illegal Hazardous-Waste Disposal and Enforcement in the United States:  A Preliminary Assessmsent," Journal of Hazardous Materials 22, pp.101-119. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1988) "Quantity Illusion and Paradoxes of Drug Interdiction:  Federal Intervention into Vice Policy,"  Law and Contemporary Problems 51 (1), pp.233-252.  [Reprinted in Fiorentini and Zamagni (eds.) The Economics of Corruption and Illegal Markets, Vol. III Edward Elgar, London, 1999.]


            Reuter, P. (1988) "Can the Borders Be Sealed?"  The Public Interest, pp.51-65.  [Reprinted in Ralph Weisheit (ed.),  Drugs and the Criminal Justice System,  Cincinati, OH, Anderson Publishing, 1990.]


            Reuter, P. (1987) "Testing and Deterrence,"  J. of Policy Analysis and Management 7 (3), pp.554-557.


            Reuter, P. (1987) "What Impasse?  A Skeptical View," in Nova Law Review symposium entitled "Breaking the Impasse in the War on  Drugs," pp. 1025-1040.


            Eads, G. & P. Reuter (1987) "Designing Safer Products:  Corporate Responses to Product Liability Law and Regulation," in Causation and Financial Compensation , The Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center.


            Reuter, P. & M. Kleiman (1986) "Risks and Prices: An Economic Analysis of Drug Enforcement," Crime and Justice: An Annual Review 9, pp.128-179. [R]  [Reprinted in Klockars, C. and S. Mastrofski Thinking about Police: Contemporary Readings  (2nd edition) New York, McGraw Hill, 1991. And in Passos, N. (ed.) Organized Crime Aldershot, England, Dartmouth Publishing Co. (1995).  Also in Italian in Di Bella, S.; Sabetti, F. and P. Tremblay (eds.) New Perspectives on Organized Crime Cosenza, Italy.  Pellegrini Editori, 2000.]


            Reuter, P. (1986) "The Social Costs of the Demand for Quantification," J. of Policy Analysis and Management 5, pp.807-812. [R]


Reuter, P. (1985) "Eternal Hope:  America's Quest for Narcotics Control,"  The Public Interest, pp. 79-95.  [Reprinted in South, N. (ed.) Drugs, Crime and Criminal Justice (Vol. II) Aldershot, England, Dartmouth Publishing Co. (1995).]


            Reuter, P. (1984) "The (Continued) Vitality of Mythical Numbers,"  The Public Interest, pp. 135-147. [Reprinted in Pontell, H. (ed.) Social Deviance: Readings in Theory and Research Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Prentice-Hall, 1990]


            Reuter, P. (September/October 1984) "Regulating Rackets," Regulation.


            Eads, G., & P. Reuter (1984) "Designing Safer Products:  Corporate Responses to Product Liability Law and Regulation"  J. of Products Liability 7, pp. 263-294. [R]


            Reuter, P. (1984) "Police Regulation of Illegal Gambling:  Frustrations of Symbolic Enforcement," Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp.36-47.  [Reprinted in Passos, N. (ed.) Organized Crime Aldershot, England, Dartmouth Publishing Co. (1995).]


            Reuter, P. (1984) "Racketeers as Cartel Organizers" in H. Alexander & G. Caiden (eds.)  Political and Economic Perspectives on Organized Crime.  Lexington, Mass.:  D.C. Heath, pp. 49-65.


            Reuter, P. (1984) "The Economic Significance of Illegal Markets in the United States: Some Observations" (in French translation) in E. Archambault and X. Greffe (eds.)  L'Economie Non-officielle.  Paris: Maspero.  [Short version published in A. Silj (ed.) The Informal Economy , Italian Social Science Research Council, 1984.]


            Reuter, P. (1984) "Social Control in Illegal Markets," in Donald Black (ed.) Toward a General Theory of Social Control.  New York: Academic Press, pp. 29-58.


            Reuter, P. (1983) "Licensing Criminals:  Police and Informants" in G. Caplan (ed.)  ABSCAM Ethics:  Moral Issues and Deception in Law Enforcement. Cambridge, Mass.:  Ballinger.


            Reuter, P. & J. Rubinstein (1983) "Illegal Markets and Organized Crime” Society 25 (2), pp. 52-55.


            Reuter, P. (1982) "The Irregular Economy and the Quality of Macroeconomic Statistics," in Vito Tanzi (ed.)  The Underground Economy in the U.S. and Abroad. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, pp. 125-145.  [Reprinted in  Economia e Lavoro , Vol. 16,  No. 4, 1982.  Also reprinted in Fiorentini and Zamagni (eds.) The Economics of Corruption and Illegal Markets Vol. III Edward Elgar, London (1999).]


Reuter, P. (1982) "A Just Use of Economics or Just Use Economics? A Review of Posner, The Economics of Justice,” California Law Review 70, pp. 850-869.


            Reuter, P. (1980) "A Reading on the Irregular Economy," Taxing and Spending, 3 (2), pp. 65-71.


            Reuter, P. with Maureen Kallick-Kaufman. (1979) "Introduction" Journal of Social Issues 35 (3), pp.1-6.  Issue jointly edited with Kallick-Kaufman.


            Reuter, P. (1979) "Easy Sport:  Research and Relevance," J. of Social Issues 35 (3), pp. 166-182.


Reuter, P. & J. Rubinstein (1978) "Facts, Fancy and Organized Crime", The Public Interest, No. 53, pp.45-67.  [Reprinted in The Public Interest on Crime and Justice and in Passos, N. Organized Crime . Aldershot, England, Dartmouth Publishing Co. (1995).]


            Ross, L., Finkle, W., & P. Reuter (1972) "Investment Certificates," Yale Law Journal 8l (7), pp. 1261-1285.


Reports  (Selected)

          [all externally peer reviewed]

            Caulkins, J.; Reuter, P.; Iguchi, M. &Chiesa, J. (2004) How Goes the War on Drugs? RAND [pages x, 49]

            Reuter, P. & J.M. Timpane (2001) Assessing Options for the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act.  RAND [pages. ix, 31].

Reuter, P., Hirschfield, P. & Davies, K. (2001). Assessing the Crackdown on Marijuana in Maryland. unpublished paper, U. of Maryland. docUploads/md_mj_crackdown.pdf


Reuter, P. & C. Petrie (eds.) (1999) Transnational Organized Crime: Report from a Workshop. National Academy Press.

            Burnam, M. A., Reuter, P., et al. (1997) Review and Evaluation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Block Grant Formula.  The RAND Corporation, [pages xxi, 183].

            Reuter, P., Falco, M. & R. MacCoun (1993) Comparing Western European and North American Drug Policies. The RAND Corporation, [pages viii, 31].


            Kennedy, M., Reuter, P., & K.J. Riley (1993) A Simple Model of Cocaine Production.  The RAND Corporation [pages xv, 63].


            Haaga, J. & P. Reuter (eds.) (1990) Improving Data for Federal Drug Policy Decisions. The RAND Corporation, N-3241-BJS, (pages ix, 22).


            Reuter, P. & J. Haaga (1989) The Organization of High-Level Drug Markets:  An Exploratory Study.  The RAND Corporation, N-2830-NIJ, [pages xix, 74].


            Hammitt, J. & P. Reuter (1988) Measuring and Deterring Illegal Disposal of Hazardous Waste.  The RAND Corporation, R-3657-EPA/JMO, [pages xi, 85].


            Reuter, P., Haaga, J., Murhpy, P., & A. Praskac (1988) Drug Use and Drug Programs in the Washington Metropolitan Area.  The RAND Corporation,  R-3655-GWRC, [pages xviii, 125].


            Cave, J. & P. Reuter (1988) The Interdictors' Lot:  Dynamic Model of the Market for Drug Smuggling Services.  The RAND Corporation, N-2632-USDP, [page xv, 61].


            Reuter, P. (1988) The Economic Consequences of Expanded Corporate Liability: An Exploratory Study. The RAND Corporation, N-2807-ICJ, [pages xiii, 54].


            Crawford, G. & P. Reuter (1988) Simulation of Adaptive Response:  A Model of Drug Interdiction. The RAND Corporation, N-2680-USDP, [pages xv, 111].


            Kohler, D. & P. Reuter (1986) Honor Among Nations:  The Gentlemen's Agreement on Export Credits. The RAND Corporation, N-2536-USDP, [pages ix, 31].


            Reuter, P. The Consequences of Product Illegality Washington, D.C.  National Institute of Justice. [Reprinted in Italian in Di Bella, S.; Sabetti, F. and P. Tremblay (eds.) New Perspectives on Organized Crime Cosenza, Italy.  Pellegrini Editore, 2000]


            Polich, M., Ellickson, P., Reuter, P. &  J. Kahan (1984) Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use.  The RAND Corporation, R-3076-CHF, [pages xxv, 196].


            Reuter, P. (1982) The Value of a Bad Reputation: Criminals, Cartels and Barriers to Entry.  The RAND Corporation, P-6835, [pages 56].


            Reuter, P., Rubinstein, J. & S. Wynn (1982) Racketeering in Legitimate Industries: Executive Summary.  Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.


            Reuter, P. & J. Rubinstein (1982) Illegal Gambling in New York.  Washington, D.C.:  National Institute of Justice.


  Shorter Writings


Reuter (2010) “Illicit Drug Policy: An economist’s view of the least-worst options” Milken Institute Review 12(2) pp.26-35

Kilmer, B. and Reuter (2009) “Prime Numbers: Doped” Foreign Policy November/December pp.34-35


Reuter (2009) “Do no harm: sensible goals for international drug policy” The American Interest IV(4) 46-52


Bergeron, H. and Reuter (2009) “Editors’ Intoroduction: Policy Change and Policy Analysis” International Journal of Drug Policy (Introduction to special issue of journal edited by Bergeron and Reuter)


Bewley-Taylor, D., Elvins M. and Reuter (2008)Editors’ Introduction: Rethinking Drug Markets and Societal Reactions to Them: Contributions in Drug Policy Research” Contemporary Drug Problems 35 pp.405-411 (Introduction to journal issue co-edited by Bewley-Taylor, Elvins and Reuter)


Reuter and E. Truman (2005) “Money Laundering Controls and Terrorist Finance” Financial Regulator Vol. 10, #2 September. pp.35-37


            Reuter and E. Truman (2005) “Anti-Money Laundering Overkill?” The International Economy Winter 56-60


Bushway, S. & P. Reuter (2005) “Collaborating with Economists” The Criminologist 30(1) pp 1-4


            MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (2003) "In Favor of a Harm Reduction Policy" in C. F. Levinthal (ed.),  Point/counterpoint: Opposing perspectives on issues of drug policy.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon, pp. 77-81.


MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (2002) “Cocaine, Marijuana and Heroin” The American Prospect 13 (10), pp.25-28.


Reuter, P. (2002) “A first research agenda for drug law enforcement” Addiction 97 (6), pp.653-654.


Reuter, P. (2000) “Comments in Symposium on Drug Policy” Fordham Urban Law Review 28, pp.187-194.    


            MacCoun, R. & P. Reuter (1999) “Does Europe Do It Better? Lessons from Holland, Britain and Switzerland” The Nation September 20, 1999. [Reprinted in World Regions and Places: A Reader, 3rd edition, Pearson Custom Publishing; also in Readings in Social Psychology Pearson Custom Press; also in Solutions to Social Problems: Lessons from Other Societies, Allyn and Bacon. Also in Laura E. Huggins (ed) Drug War Deadlock: The Policy Battle Continues, Hoover Institution Press, 2005

Reuter, P. (1999) “Are calculations of the economic costs of drug abuse either possible or useful?” Addiction 94 (5), pp.627-630.


            Reuter, P. (1997) “Methamphetamine Returns” Drug Policy Analysis Bulletin #1.


            Reuter, P. (1997) “Punishing without Reflection” Drug Policy Analysis Bulletin #2.


Book Reviews:  American J. of Comparative Law, British J. of Addictions, Contemporary Sociology, Health Affairs,  J. Economic Literature, J. Policy Analysis and Management (3).

     Op-ed Articles:  


Reuter, P.  "Make Sure Maryland Keeps the Jackpot", Washington Post, February 9, 2003, pg. B2.

Pollack, H. & P. Reuter  "Myths About Drugs and Welfare", Washington Post, October 1, 2002, pg. A21.

Reuter, P. "What Can be Done at the Border", Washington Post, December 28, 2001, pg. A23.

Reuter, P. "One Tough Plant", NY Times, March 31, 2000, Section A, pg. 27.


Earlier New York Times (2), Washington Post (5), Wall Street Journal (3), Los Angeles Times (2), Le Monde des Debats, Baltimore Sun (2), San Diego Union


            Rapporteur’s report, Ditchley House Conference on “Drugs; the Threat and the Reponse”, 1991.


            Three entries in Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol New York, MacMillan, 1995


            Short commentaries Addiction July, 1994; April 1997; April 1998, June 2003; British Journal Psychiatry, 2001


            Unsigned Articles: The Economist (10).


             Reuter, P., Strang, J., Farrell, M. & J. Neeleman (1994) Editorial, British Medical Journal.  March 5, 1994; pp.609-610.


            Reuter, P. with Farrell, M. and J. Strang (1994) "The Non-Case for Legalization" in Winning the War on Drugs: To Legalize or Not.  London, Institute of Economic Affairs, Hobart Paper 124, pp.83-90.



      School of Public Policy:

            Research Methods (PhD students), Foundations of Social Policy, Policy Project for Social Policy, Policy Workshop

     Department of Criminology:

            Policy Analysis for the Criminal Justice System, Regulation of Vice and of Organized Crime, Policy Research Methods

University Service

            School of Public Policy

                        Chair, PhD Review Committee 2006

Chair Admissions Committee, 2001-2006

                        Chair Promotion and Tenure Committee, 1995-2000, 2004-2007

Chair of the PhD Committee, 1994-1999

Head of Social Policy specialization 1993-1997


                        Promotion and Tenure Committee, 1995

                        Graduate Committee 1999

                        Promotion and Tenure Appeals Committee 2007 (chair)


            Member, Executive Committee of the Maryland Population Research Center 2004-2008

Grants and Contracts (Selected: 1987-)

Assessing the scale and consequences of illicit flows from developing countries”  World Bank project [Principal Investigator: ca. $800,000] 1/109-6/30/2010


“Assessment of world drug markets and policies, 1998-2006” European Commission $725,000 [RAND Corporation/Trimbos Institute) 1/08-12/08


“Assessment of Swiss drug policy” Swiss Federal Bureau of Public Health ($85,000) 11/07-10-/08 “Assessing the crime effects of increased incarceration” National Institute of Justice, $67,000 April-Octrober 2006 (Shawn Bushway Co-PI)


“Within- and Cross-National Analyses of the Effects of Cannabis Depenalization” Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, $400,000, July 2002-June 2004 (co-PI with Rosalie Pacula)


“Modeling the Impact of the Reductions in Afghistan Opiate Exports” Smith Richardson Foundation, Netherlands Ministry of Justice, European Commission, United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Offfice, $325,000, April 2002 –March 2004


“How Can the Federal Government Improve the Operation of the Safe and Drug Free Schools Act” (co-PI with Michael Timpane) $200,000; January 1999-September 1999, Department of Education


“Why Haven’t Drug Prices Risen with Tougher Enforcement?” (J. Caulkins, Co-P.I.) $260,000, September 1998-March 2000. National Institute of Justice


The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women with Substance Abuse Problems” (P. Ebener, Co-P.I.) $285,000 September 1997-January 2000. Smith-Richardson Foundation


Evaluation of Block Grant Formula for Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (M.A. Burnam, Co-P.I.) [contract]  $600,000, August 1993-March, 1994. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. 


Continued support of the Drug Policy Research Center (M. A. Burnam, Co-P.I.) $2,050,000,  September 1992- August 1995. Ford Foundation. 


Pilot study of drug dealer careers and street drug market customer characteristics.  (R. MacCoun, Co-P.I.)  $100,000, December 1991-November 1992.  Rockefeller Foundation. 


Two conferences on comparison of U.S. and Western European drug policy experiences.  (M. Falco, Co-P.I.)  $60,000. September 1990-August 1992.  German Marshall Fund. 


Study of legal options for U.S. drug policy.  $1,000,000, February 1990-August 1993.  Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. 


Creation of the Drug Policy Research Center (Co-P.I. B. Williams). $1,500,000 Ford Foundation and $1,500,000 Weingart Foundation.  September 1989-August 1992. 


Study of street drug markets in Washington, D.C. $235,000, August 1987-June 1990.  Rockefeller Foundation. 


Invited Lectures and Seminars (Selected, 1995-)

Dutch Society of Criminology, keynote speaker, Leiden, July 1. 2010

College on Problems of Drug Dependence, invited speaker, Scottsdale Arizone, June 2010

Caleb Foote symposium, Boalt Hall Law School, Berkeley, CA. November 2009

Brazilian Commission on Drugs and Democracy, Rio de Janeiro, August 2009

International Conference on Anti-Terrorist Finance and Money Laundering, sponsore by AUSTRAC, Sydney, Australia, April 1, 2009

Sciences-Po “Drugs and Culture”, Paris, December 13, 2008

Institute for Social Research, “Festschrift for Ambros Uchtenhagen” Zuich, September 5, 2008

Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy, Rio de Janeiro, April 30, 2008

Utrecht School of Economics (money laundering), November, 2, 2007

            European Monitoring Center on Drugs and Drug Abuse, Lisbon, December 9, 2007

International Monetary Fund, Biennial Seminar on Current Developments in Monetary and Financial Law, October 2006. 

49th International Conference on Alcohol and Addictions, Edinburgh, September, 2006

Conference on “Para-Politics”, Univesity of Melbourne, August, 2006

Austrian Bankers Association, Linz, June 2006

University of the Andes conference on Colombian drug policy, Bogota, October 2005

48th International Conference on Alcohol and Addictions (opening speech) Budapest, October, 2005

Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany, July 2005

Wilton Park (England) conference on drug policy, March 2005

Beckley Foundation Seminar on Drug Policy (lead speaker), House of Lords, London, October 2004

Arne Ryde seminar on Economics of Substance Abuse, University of Lund, Sweden, August 2004

Conference on Developments in Criminal Justice in China and the United States, Yangzhou, China, July 2004

Max Planck Institute Conference on European drug policy, Berlin, May 2004

Plenary Speaker, International Harm Reduction Conference, Melbourne, Australia, April 2004

TransNational Institute, Amsterdam, December 2003

Brazilian Society on Addiction, Sao Paolo, September 2003

Royal Society of Edinburgh, May 2003

Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand March 2003

United Nations conference on modeling of drug control, Vienna, March 2003

United Nations conference on progress in international drug control, Mexico City, October, 2002

Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Laws, Freiburg, Germany, September 2002

First Annual Colloquium of the International Center for the Prevention of Crime (delivered principal address) Quebec, November 10, 2001

First Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology (plenary speaker) Lausanne, September 7, 2001

The Global Drugs Economy, British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, June 25, 2001

Georgetown University Institute of Public Policy, Distinguished Speakers Series, February 2001

Stockholm University, Institute of Criminology, September 2000

New South Wales Drug Policy Summit (plenary speaker) Sydney, Australia, May 1999

Conference on Heroin Assisted Treatments, University of Bern, Switzerland, March 1999

First International Conference on Marijuana and Psychosis (keynote speaker) Melbourne, Australia, February 1999

Treatment Research Center, University of Pennsylvania, January 1999

Department of Economics, Sorbonne (University of Paris-I) May 1998

Fortunoff Lecture Series, New York University Law School, March 1998

Bedo lecturer, Sam Houston State University, April 1997

Perspectives on Crime and Justice, lecture series sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, February 1997

WG Hart Lectures, Queen Mary College, London, November  1996

Drug Abuse Research Center, UCLA, September 1996

Opening plenary speech, 7th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harms, Hobart (Australia) March 1996

             Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada, October 1995

             National Addictions Center, Institute for Psychiatry, London, January 1995


  Other Professional Activities


Fellow, College on Problems of Drug Dependence 2000-

Fellow, American Society of Criminology, 2008-  

Founding president of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy


Boards and Panels

Technical Advisory Panel for the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 1999-

Inter Agency Task Force on Methamphetamine (appointed by the Attorney General) 1998-2000

Office of National Drug Control Policy, Committee on Data, Research and Evaluation 1996-2002

 Advisory Panel for Drug Evaluation Network System, 1998-1999       

Task Force on International Drug Policy, Council on Foreign Relations, 1996

            Board of Directors, College on Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994-1998

            Advisory Committee to

the Standing Committee on Substance Abuse, American Bar Association 1997-

Trustee, Federation of American Scientists Fund, 1994-2001

National Academy of Sciences

National Associate of the NAS (lifetime appointment) since 2005

Member, Institute of Medicine Committee on Federal Regulation of Methadone programs; 1993-1994

            Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council, April 1997-July 2002

            Institute of Medicine Committee to Assess the Science Base for Smoking Harm Reduction 1999-2000

            Committee on Improving Data and Research on Firearms, National Research Council, 2001-2004

            Chair, workshop on transnational organized crime, 1998

            Chair, workshop on understanding the demand for drugs, 2007-2010

            Chair: Committee on the effects of increased border enforcement

Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management

            Executive Committee (ex officio) 1999-2004

            Program Committee 2001-2003

            Chair (and principal author of report) ad hoc committee on the future of the fall conference 2003

            Policy Council 2006-

     American Society of Criminology

            Program Committee (various years)

Nominating Committee (2003)

Vollmer Prize Committee (chair) 2006

            Nominating Committee 2007


Executive Director, Joint Legislative-Executive Task Force on Commercial Gaming in Maryland, July-December 1995


Member, Clinton-Gore transition team for Department of Justice: one of two person team that prepared transition book on the Drug Enforcement Administration.  December 1992.


Editorial Boards

     Associate Editor, Justice Quarterly,  1986-1989

     Editorial Advisory Board Addiction Abstracts 1993-

     Assistant Editor Addiction 1995-

     Editorial Board Trans National Organized Crime 1995-   

     Editorial Board J. Gambling Studies 1997-

     Editorial Board  J. Policy Analysis and Management 1997-1999; 2004-2009

     Senior Editor Criminology and Public Policy 2000-

      Editorial Board, Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000-


     Member, Review Panels for National Institute of Justice

     Member, Ad hoc review committees for American Statistical Association

     Referee, National Science Foundation proposals


     Member, Scientific Advisory Group, Corporation Against Drug Abuse,  1989-1993


       Congressional Testimony: 

       Senate Armed Services Committee, Senate International Narcotics Caucus (twice), Senate Judiciary Committee, House Government Operations Committee (twice), House Foreign Affairs Committee (Western Hemisphere Subcommittee), House Judiciary Committee (Crime Subcommittee), House Judiciary Committee (Drugs Subcommittee) House Appropriations Committee (Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service and General Government), House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight (International Affairs Subcommittee), House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight (Domestic Policy Subcommitee; twice); House Ways and Means Committee (Human Resources Subcommittee), Joint Economic Committee


     Referee for journals:  

Addiction; American J. Public Health; Criminology; Contemporary Drug Problems, Crime and Justice; Crominology, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Drug and Alcohol Review, European Law and Economic ReviewJ. Criminal Law and Criminology; J. Law, Economics and Organization; J. Drug Issues; J.  Research in Crime and Delinquency; Milbank Fund Quarterly; J. Policy Analysis and Management; J. American Statistical Association; Justice Quarterly, Management Sciences; Milbank Quarterly, Science, Social Forces; SocioEconomic Planning Sciences, World Politics.


Other Activities

     Guest Scholar, Brookings Institution, 1980-1981

     Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Maryland, 1983

     Adjunct Professor, School of Justice, American University, 1986

     Faculty member, Executive Program "Merging Agency Perspectives on Drug Policy"            Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, Mass. June 1999 and July 2000        

    Sabbatical leave at World Bank, 10/07-6/08


 Consulting (Selected)

      New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, 1985-1986

      New York Organized Crime Task Force, 1986-1987

      General Accounting Office, 1987, 1992

      Office Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Policy, 1988

      United Nations Drug Control Program, 1994

      British Department of Health, 1994

      Premier’s Advisory Commission on Drug Policy (Victoria, Australia), 1996

      National Gambling Impact Study Commission (principal research consultant)           1997-1999

      Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), Department of the Treasury, December 1999-June 2000

       World Bank, 2005-

      International Monetary Fund 2008


March 2011